Senegal is the westernmost country in Africa, with a population of around 17 million and a population density of 87 people per km2. The northern part of the country is characterised by an arid Sahelian climate, with higher temperatures and an annual rainfall average of about 360 mm, a strong contrast to the southern region of Casamance, where rainfall averages between 1200 and 1500 mm annually.
Around 75% of the population is engaged in agriculture, with the main crops being millet, sorghum, rice, peanuts, cowpeas and cotton. Livestock production is more important in the arid north, where it is the main economic activity. The country‘s livestock population includes approximately 3 million cattle and 8.7 million small ruminants (sheep and goats). The official language is French, with Wolof as the primary local language, followed by Fulani. The country ranks 168 of 189 in the human development index report of 2020, with a score of 0.512, indicating a low human development rating for Senegal.